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De hängande trädgårdarna i Babylon räknades som ett av antikens sju underverk. Ny forskning visar dock att de inte alls fanns i Babylon, utan i Nineve. Det är den brittiska assyriologen Stephanie Dalley från universitetet i Oxford som med goda argument hävdat att de berömda trädgårdarna fanns i Nineve och inte i Babylon. I stället för att vara anlagda av kung Nebukadnessar, vilket grekiska historieskrivare hävdade, var det den assyriske kungen Sanherib som anlade trädgårdarna och dessutom konstruerade en nästan tio mil lång kanal för att leda vatten från Zagrosbergen till sin huvudstad, bland annat för att bevattna de imponerande trädgårdarna. Augin Kurt Haninke skrev en artikel om detta i Hujådå för snart tre år sedan. Den kan läsas här. Kunskapskanalen visade nyligen en dokumentär där Stephanie Dalley berättar om sin teori och reser till norra Irak för att se om det går att hitta stöd för den i arkeologiska lämningar. Dokumentären kan ses på SVT Play i ännu en knapp månad. Länken finns här.
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Jardines colgantes natural. Jardines colgantes caseros. Imagenes jardines colgantes. Youtube jardines colgantes. Jardines colgantes de babilonia wikipedia. Jardines colgantes de babilonia en la actualidad. Jardines colgantes reciclados. Jardines colgantes de babilonia resumen. Jardines colgantes de babilonia historia. This hand-coloured engraving, probably made in the 19th century after the first excavations in the Assyrian capitals, depicts the fabled Hanging Gardens, with the Tower of Babel in the background. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World as listed by Hellenic culture. It was described as a remarkable feat of engineering with an ascending series of tiered gardens containing a wide variety of trees, shrubs, and vines, resembling a large green mountain constructed of mud bricks. It was said to have been built in the ancient city of Babylon, near present-day Hillah, Babil province, in Iraq. Its name is derived from the Greek word kremastós (κρεμαστός, lit. "overhanging"), which has a broader meaning than the modern English word "hanging" and refers to trees being planted on a raised structure such as a terrace.    According to one legend, the Hanging Gardens were built alongside a grand palace known as The Marvel of Mankind, by the Neo-Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar II (who ruled between 605 and 562 BC), for his Median wife Queen Amytis, because she missed the green hills and valleys of her homeland. This was attested to by the Babylonian priest Berossus, writing in about 290 BC, a description that was later quoted by Josephus. The construction of the Hanging Gardens has also been attributed to the legendary queen Semiramis, who supposedly ruled Babylon in the 9th century BC,  and they have been called the Hanging Gardens of Semiramis as an alternative name.  The Hanging Gardens are the only one of the Seven Wonders for which the location has not been definitively established.  There are no extant Babylonian texts that mention the gardens, and no definitive archaeological evidence has been found in Babylon.   Three theories have been suggested to account for this. One: that they were purely mythical, and the descriptions found in ancient Greek and Roman writings (including those of Strabo, Diodorus Siculus and Quintus Curtius Rufus) represented a romantic ideal of an eastern garden.  Two: that they existed in Babylon, but were completely destroyed sometime around the first century AD.   Three: that the legend refers to a well-documented garden that the Assyrian King Sennacherib (704–681 BC) built in his capital city of Nineveh on the River Tigris, near the modern city of Mosul.   Descriptions [ edit] There are five principal writers whose descriptions of Babylon exist in some form today. These writers concern themselves with the size of the Hanging Gardens, their overall design and means of irrigation, and why they were built. Josephus ( c. 37–100 AD) quotes a description of the gardens by Berossus, a Babylonian priest of Marduk,  whose writing circa 290 BC is the earliest known mention of the gardens.  Berossus described the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II and is the only source to credit that king with the construction of the Hanging Gardens.   In this palace he erected very high walls, supported by stone pillars; and by planting what was called a pensile paradise, and replenishing it with all sorts of trees, he rendered the prospect an exact resemblance of a mountainous country. This he did to gratify his queen, because she had been brought up in Media, and was fond of a mountainous situation.  Diodorus Siculus (active c. 60–30 BC) seems to have consulted the 4th century BC texts of both Cleitarchus (a historian of Alexander the Great) and Ctesias of Cnidus. Diodorus ascribes the construction to a Syrian king. He states that the garden was in the shape of a square, with each side approximately four plethra long. The garden was tiered, with the uppermost gallery being 50 cubits high. The walls, 22 feet thick, were made of brick. The bases of the tiered sections were sufficiently deep to provide root growth for the largest trees, and the gardens were irrigated from the nearby Euphrates.  Quintus Curtius Rufus (fl. 1st century AD) probably drew on the same sources as Diodorus.  He states that the gardens were located on top of a citadel, which was 20 stadia in circumference. He attributes the building of the gardens to a Syrian king, again for the reason that his queen missed her homeland. The account of Strabo ( c. 64 BC – 21 AD) possibly based his description on the lost account of Onesicritus from the 4th century BC.  He states that the gardens were watered by means of an Archimedes' screw leading to the gardens from the Euphrates river. The last of the classical sources, thought to be independent of the others, is A Handbook to the Seven Wonders of the World by Philo of Byzantium (writing in the 4th to 5th century AD; not to be confused with Philo of Byzantium, who lived ca. 280 BC – ca. 220 BC).  The method of raising water by screw matches that described by Strabo.  Philo praises the engineering and ingenuity of building vast areas of deep soil, which had a tremendous mass, so far above the natural grade of the surrounding land, as well as the irrigation techniques. Historical existence [ edit] This copy of a bas relief from the North Palace of Ashurbanipal (669–631 BC) at Nineveh shows a luxurious garden watered by an aqueduct. It is unclear whether the Hanging Gardens were an actual construction or a poetic creation, owing to the lack of documentation in contemporaneous Babylonian sources. There is also no mention of Nebuchadnezzar's wife Amyitis (or any other wives), although a political marriage to a Median or Persian would not have been unusual.  Many records exist of Nebuchadnezzar's works, yet his long and complete inscriptions do not mention any garden.  However, the gardens were said to still exist at the time that later writers described them, and some of these accounts are regarded as deriving from people who had visited Babylon.  Herodotus, who describes Babylon in his Histories, does not mention the Hanging Gardens,  although it could be that the gardens were not yet well known to the Greeks at the time of his visit.  To date, no archaeological evidence has been found at Babylon for the Hanging Gardens.  It is possible that evidence exists beneath the Euphrates, which cannot be excavated safely at present. The river flowed east of its current position during the time of Nebuchadnezzar II, and little is known about the western portion of Babylon.  Rollinger has suggested that Berossus attributed the Gardens to Nebuchadnezzar for political reasons, and that he had adopted the legend from elsewhere.  Hanging Garden at Nineveh [ edit] One proposal is that the Hanging Gardens of Babylon were actually constructed by the Assyrian king Sennacherib (reigned 704 – 681 BC) for his palace at Nineveh. Stephanie Dalley posits that during the intervening centuries the two sites became confused, and the extensive gardens at Sennacherib's palace were attributed to Nebuchadnezzar II's Babylon.  Archaeological excavations have found traces of a vast system of aqueducts attributed to Sennacherib by an inscription on its remains, which Dalley proposes were part of a 80-kilometre (50 mi) series of canals, dams, and aqueducts used to carry water to Nineveh with water-raising screws used to raise it to the upper levels of the gardens.  Dalley bases her arguments on recent developments in the analysis of contemporary Akkadian inscriptions. Her main points are:  The name "Babylon", meaning "Gate of the Gods"  was applied to several Mesopotamian cities.  Sennacherib renamed the city gates of Nineveh after gods,  which suggests that he wished his city to be considered "a Babylon". Only Josephus names Nebuchadnezzar as the king who built the gardens; although Nebuchadnezzar left many inscriptions, none mentions any garden or engineering works.  Diodorus Siculus and Quintus Curtius Rufus specify a "Syrian" king. By contrast, Sennacherib left written descriptions,  and there is archaeological evidence of his water engineering.  His grandson Assurbanipal pictured the mature garden on a sculptured wall panel in his palace.  Sennacherib called his new palace and garden "a wonder for all peoples". He describes the making and operation of screws to raise water in his garden.  The descriptions of the classical authors fit closely to these contemporary records. Before the Battle of Gaugamela in 331 BC Alexander the Great camped for four days near the aqueduct at Jerwan.  The historians who travelled with him would have had ample time to investigate the enormous works around them, recording them in Greek. These first-hand accounts do not survive into our times but were quoted by later Greek writers. King Sennacherib's garden was well-known not just for its beauty – a year-round oasis of lush green in a dusty summer landscape – but also for the marvelous feats of water engineering that maintained the garden.  There was a tradition of Assyrian royal garden building. King Ashurnasirpal II (883–859 BC) had created a canal, which cut through the mountains. Fruit tree orchards were planted. Also mentioned were pines, cypresses and junipers; almond trees, date trees, ebony, rosewood, olive, oak, tamarisk, walnut, terebinth, ash, fir, pomegranate, pear, quince, fig, and grapes. A sculptured wall panel of Assurbanipal shows the garden in its maturity. One original panel  and the drawing of another  are held by the British Museum, although neither is on public display. Several features mentioned by the classical authors are discernible on these contemporary images. Photo of Assyrian wall relief showing garden in the ancient city of Nineveh (Mosul Iraq) Of Sennacherib's palace, he mentions the massive limestone blocks that reinforce the flood defences. Parts of the palace were excavated by Austin Henry Layard in the mid-19th century. His citadel plan shows contours which would be consistent with Sennacherib's garden, but its position has not been confirmed. The area has been used as a military base in recent times, making it difficult to investigate further. The irrigation of such a garden demanded an upgraded water supply to the city of Nineveh. The canals stretched over 50 km into the mountains. Sennacherib was proud of the technologies he had employed and describes them in some detail on his inscriptions. At the headwater of Bavian (Khinnis)  his inscription mentions automatic sluice gates. An enormous aqueduct crossing the valley at Jerwan was constructed of over 2 million dressed stones. It used stone arches and waterproof cement.  On it is written: Sennacherib king of the world king of Assyria. Over a great distance I had a watercourse directed to the environs of Nineveh, joining together the waters.... Over steep-sided valleys I spanned an aqueduct of white limestone blocks, I made those waters flow over it. Sennacherib claimed that he had built a "Wonder for all Peoples, " and said he was the first to deploy a new casting technique in place of the "lost-wax" process for his monumental (30 tonne) bronze castings. He was able to bring the water into his garden at a high level because it was sourced from further up in the mountains, and he then raised the water even higher by deploying his new water screws. This meant he could build a garden that towered above the landscape with large trees on the top of the terraces – a stunning artistic effect that surpassed those of his predecessors. Plants [ edit] The gardens, as depicted in artworks, featured blossoming flowers, ripe fruit, burbling waterfalls and terraces exuberant with rich foliage. Plant species that may have been found in the gardens, as based on Babylonian literature, tradition, and the environmental characteristics of the area, will be as follows:  Olea europaea Cydonia oblonga Pyrus communis Ficus carica Prunus dulcis Vitis vinifera Phoenix dactylifera Tamarix aphylla Pistacia atlantica Imported plant varieties that may have been present in the gardens include the cedar, cypress, myrtle, pomegranate, plum, juniper, oak, ash tree, fir, nightshade and willow. [ citation needed] Some of these plants were suspended over the terraces and draped over its walls with arches tamarisk and date-palms are hardy plants, surefooted of withstanding the heat and aridity of the area. They also have their profitable benefits as well ( dates were commonly traded goods). [ citation needed] See also [ edit] References [ edit] ^ a b c Stephanie Dalley (1993). "Ancient Mesopotamian Gardens and the Identification of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon Resolved". Garden History. 21: 7. JSTOR 1587050. ^ a b c Reade, Julian (2000). "Alexander the Great and the Hanging Gardens of Babylon". Iraq. 62: 195. doi: 10. 2307/4200490. ISSN 0021-0889. ^ Foster, Karen Polinger (2004). "The Hanging Gardens of Nineveh". 66: 207. 2307/4200575. ISSN 0021-0889. ^ a b "The Hanging Gardens of Babylon". Retrieved 5 February 2014. ^ a b Cartwright M (July 2018). "Hanging Gardens of Babylon". Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 15 September 2018. ^ a b c Finkel (1988) p. 41. ^ Finkel (1988) p. 58. ^ Finkel, Irving; Seymour, Michael (2008). Babylon: City of Wonders. London: British Museum Press. p. 52. ISBN 0-7141-1171-6. ^ Finkel 2008 ^ "The Hanging Gardens of Babylon". Retrieved 5 February 2014. ^ Dalley, Stephanie (2013). The Mystery of the Hanging Garden of Babylon: an elusive World Wonder traced. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-966226-5. ^ Finkel (2008) p. 108. ^ Dalley, Stephanie (1994). "Nineveh, Babylon and the Hanging Gardens: Cuneiform and Classical Sources Reconciled". 56: 45. 2307/4200384. ISSN 0021-0889. ^ Joseph. contr. Appion. lib. 1. c. 19. — Syncel. Chron. 220. — Euseb. Præp. Evan. 9. ^ Diodorus Siculus II. 10-1-10 ^ History of Alexander V. 35-5 ^ Strabo, Geography XVI. 5, translation adapted from H. L. Jones, Loeb Classical Library edn (1961). ^ That is, Philo the Paradoxographer of Byzantium, not Philo the Engineer of Byzantium. See Stephanie Dalley, "More about the Hanging Gardens, " in Of Pots and Pans: Papers on the Archaeology and History of Mesopotamia and Syria as presented to David Oates on his 75th Birthday, Edited by L. al-Gailani-Werr, J. E. Curtis, H. Martin, A. McMahon, J. Oates and J. Reade, (London), pp. 67–73 ISBN 1-897750-62-5. ^ Dalley (2013), p. 40. Dalley bases her translation on Brodersen (1992) who uses an early Greek text. A previous translation by David Oates, based on a Latin text, is found in Finkel (1988) pp. 45–46. ^ Finkel (2008) p. 109. ^ Dalley (2013) ^ Priestley, Jessica (2014). Herodotus and Hellenistic culture: Literary Studies in the Reception of the Histories. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 91. ^ Joan Oates, Babylon, Revised Edition, Thames and Hudson, London (1986) p. 144 ISBN 0500273847. ^ Rollinger, Robert "Berossos and the Monuments", ed. J Haubold et al, The World of Berossos, Wiesbaden (2013), p151 ^ Alberge, Dalya (5 May 2013). "Babylon's hanging garden: ancient scripts give clue to missing wonder". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 May 2013. ^ Dalley, Stephanie (2013) The Mystery of the Hanging Garden of Babylon: an elusive World Wonder traced, Oxford University Press ISBN 978-0-19-966226-5. ^ AR George, Babylonian Topographical Texts, (1992) ^ see for example Cuneiform Texts in the British Museum, Vol 19, page 25, line 25 ^ Pongratz-Leisten, Ina Sulmi Erub (1994), ^ See Dalley (2013) ch 1 for a summary. ^ Especially: the Iraq Museum prism dated 694 BC published by A Heidel, The Octagonal Sennacherib Prism in the Iraq Museum, Sumer 9 (1953); and the British Museum prism BM103000 of the same date ^ T Jacobsen and S Lloyd, Sennacherib's Aqueduct at Jerwan (1935); Reade, Studies in Assyrian Geography, Revue d'Assyriologie 72 (1978); Channel 4 TV programme Secret History: Finding Babylon's Hanging Garden, 24 November 2013 ^ AH Layard, Discoveries in the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon, (1853) ^ Dalley (2013), pp. 62–63 ^ R Lane Fox, Alexander the Great (1973) ^ Stephanie Dalley (2013). The Mystery of the Hanging Garden of Babylon: An Elusive World Wonder Traced. pp. 65–82. ISBN 978-0-19-966226-5. The quotations in this section are the translations of the author and are reproduced with the permission of OUP. ^ BM124939 ^ Original Drawing IV 77 ^ Layard (1853) ^ Jacobsen (1935) ^ The Lost Gardens of Babylon - Guide to Ancient Plants by PBS, May 2, 2014 Sources [ edit] Finkel, Irving (1988). "The Hanging Gardens of Babylon". In Clayton, Peter; Price, Martin (eds. ). The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. New York: Routledge. pp. 38 ff. ISBN 0-415-05036-7. Finkel, Irving L. ; Seymour, Michael J., eds. (2008). Babylon. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-538540-3. Dalley, Stephanie (2013). ISBN 978-0-19-966226-5. Further reading [ edit] Dalley, Stephanie. 1994. "Nineveh, Babylon and the Hanging Gardens: Cuneiform and Classical Sources Reconciled. " Iraq 56: 45-58. 2307/4200384. --. 2013. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Norwich, John Julius. 2009. The Great Cities In History. London: Thames & Hudson. Reade, Julian. 2000. "Alexander the Great and the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. " Iraq 62: 195-217. 2307/4200490. External links [ edit] How the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World Work: The Hanging Gardens of Babylon Plants in the Hanging Gardens of Babylon Artistic Renditions of the Hanging Gardens and the city of Babylon Animation of 3D virtual Hanging Gardens of Babylon The Lost Gardens of Babylon Documentary produced by the PBS Series Secrets of the Dead Coordinates: 32°32′08″N 44°25′39″E / 32. 5355°N 44. 4275°E.
Jardines colgantes babilonia. Jardines colgantes de babilonia hoy en dia. Jardines colgantes de babilonia para colorear. Jardines colgantes de griegos wikipedia. 21 wins & 14 nominations. See more awards » Videos Learn more More Like This Crime | Drama Fantasy 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 7. 3 / 10 X When a bishop comes to a prison to hear the confession of an old friend he is forced to watch a play, performed by the inmates, about their youth together, love and betrayal. Director: John Greyson Stars: Ian D. Clark, Marcel Sabourin, Aubert Pallascio Romance 6. 8 / 10 Francesco and Marta are husband and wife running a small design company in Rome. When Francesco's long forgotten Aunt Anita dies in Istanbul, he travels there to look after the sale of the... See full summary » Ferzan Ozpetek Alessandro Gassmann, Francesca d'Aloja, Carlo Cecchi Biography History 7. 1 / 10 Based on the life of the young Guy Burgess, who would become better known as one of the Cambridge Spies. Marek Kanievska Rupert Everett, Colin Firth, Michael Jenn Comedy 6. 6 / 10 A Spanish coming of age story focusing on the antics of two 17 year olds, who have a posh beach house almost all to themselves one summer. This is also a summer of sexual awakenings. Cesc Gay Fernando Ramallo, Jordi Vilches, Marieta Orozco A successful young L. A. doctor and his equally successful television-producer wife find their happily-ever-after life torn assunder when he suddenly confronts his long-repressed attraction... See full summary » Arthur Hiller Michael Ontkean, Kate Jackson, Harry Hamlin Big Eden is a small, fictional northwestern Montana town. Thomas Bezucha Arye Gross, Eric Schweig, Tim DeKay Music 6. 5 / 10 Fifteen-year-old Beni falls in love with Fögi, a singer in a Rock band. As Fögi seduces him, Beni is willing to follow him where ever he takes him. But Fögi is a drug addict and pulls Beni... See full summary » Marcel Gisler Frédéric Andrau, Vincent Branchet, Urs Peter Halter Short High school senior Ben secretly lusts after bad boy classmate Johnny. After Ben gives Johnny a ride home one night, the boys end up in Johnny's swimming pool and have an encounter that breaks the rules and blows Ben's mind. Adam Salky Adam Fleming, Michael Cassidy, Marla Burkholder 6. 2 / 10 Chronicles the relationship between two gay teenagers in the rural south in the late '70s. James Bolton Stephan Bender, Thomas Jay Ryan, Diana Scarwid The adolescent Milan discovers his own suspected homosexuality at the age of 17 and the consequences for him and his family but also the liberation as he understands why he has been so down and rebellious. Stefan Schaller Merlin Rose, Claudia Michelsen, Johann von Bülow 7. 2 / 10 The misadventures of two young gay men, trying to find a place to be alone, one night in Manhattan. Jim Fall Christian Campbell, John Paul Pitoc, Tori Spelling 6. 7 / 10 Mathieu, 18, spends the summer at his mother's summer house, in Brittany. On the beach, he meets Cédric, a boy his age. A love-story begins between the two boys. Sébastien Lifshitz Jérémie Elkaïm, Stéphane Rideau, Marie Matheron Edit Storyline William, a once obese and troubled teen, goes back to his family's home after being gone, without word, for ten years and finds it (and his family) haunted with his past. He had moved to the city and become a fit, well-adjusted gay man, but during his visit home, he becomes unhinged as the newly remembered reasons for his miserable adolescence come to life in each of their presents. Written by Tom Hunt Brooks <> Plot Summary Add Synopsis Taglines: It's hard to go home... ten years after your death. Motion Picture Rating ( MPAA) Rated R for strong sexuality, language, and a scene of a hanging, and some teen drug use See all certifications » Details Release Date: 7 November 1997 (USA) See more » Also Known As: The Hanging Garden Box Office Budget: CAD1, 500, 000 (estimated) Cumulative Worldwide Gross: $24, 909 See more on IMDbPro » Company Credits Technical Specs See full technical specs » Did You Know? Trivia The film won the best Canadian feature award at TIFF. See more » Quotes Grace: [ sending her grandchildren off to a school dance. To granddaughter Rosemary. ] You got pockets? You carrying your protection with you? Teen Rosemary: What?! Started when your father was young. Every party dress had to have pockets. [ fetches something from her chest-of-drawers. ] Now... Your hands. These'll keep you safe. [ lowers a rosary into Rosemary's open hands. ] Now, you feel some of that... that hocus-pocus comin' into your body... you don't have to worry. See more » Soundtracks Sir James Baird Traditional, arranged by The Rankin Family Performed by The Rankin Family Courtesy of EMI Music Canada See more ».
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